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Glacier Info - Liberty Cap Glacier

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Liberty Cap Glacier
Liberty Cap is the northern peak of the summit of Mount Rainier with an elevation of 14,112 feet. Bailey Willis named it in 1883 for "....its fanciful resemblance to the head and cap of the Goddess of Liberty..." Dee Molenaar reports that it had previously been called North Peak for its location. (Reese, 2009)

STATISTICS AS OF 2015 (Beason, 2017):

Aerial Extent:
0.83 ± 0.04 square miles (2.14 ± 0.11 km2) (Rank: 13 of 29)

Debris Cover:
--No appreciable debris cover in 2015--

Highest Elevation (Head):
14,121 feet (4,304 m)

Lowest Elevation (Terminus):
10,585 feet (3,226 m)

Elevation Range:
3,537 feet (1,078 m)

Length:
1.69 miles (2.71 km)

Average Slope:
30°

Average Flow Direction (Flows towards):
Northwest (314°)

CHANGE IN EXTENT, 1896-2015 (Beason, 2017):
Units 1896 1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
Area, mi2 1.09 0.93 0.80 0.81 0.85 0.83
Area, km2 2.82 2.40 2.08 2.10 2.20 2.14

Area change between periods
1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
1896 -0.16 mi2
(-0.42 km2)
-0.29 mi2
(-0.74 km2)
-0.28 mi2
(-0.72 km2)
-0.24 mi2
(-0.62 km2)
-0.26 mi2
(-0.68 km2)
1913 -- -0.12 mi2
(-0.32 km2)
-0.12 mi2
(-0.30 km2)
-0.08 mi2
(-0.20 km2)
-0.10 mi2
(-0.26 km2)
1971 -- 0.01 mi2
(0.02 km2)
0.05 mi2
(0.12 km2)
0.02 mi2
(0.06 km2)
1994 -- 0.04 mi2
(0.10 km2)
0.01 mi2
(0.04 km2)
2009 -- -0.02 mi2
(-0.06 km2)

Percent change between periods
1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
1896 -14.9 % -26.3 % -25.5 % -22.1 % -24.2 %
1913 -- -13.4 % -12.4 % -8.4 % -10.9 %
1971 -- 1.1 % 5.8 % 2.9 %
1994 -- 4.7 % 1.8 %
2009 -- -2.8 %

ESTIMATED CHANGE IN VOLUME, 1896-2015 (George and Beason, 2017):
PLEASE see important notes about this, below...
Units 1896 1913 1971 1981* 1994 2009 2015
Volume, mi3 0.0759 0.0646 0.0559 0.0022 0.0565 0.0592 0.0575
Volume, km3 0.3164 0.2692 0.2331 0.0093 0.2357 0.2466 0.2398
* = 1981 was the only year that glacial volumes have been measured. See note below.

Basal Shear Stress (τ): 2,761.65 lbs/ft2

Volume change between periods
1913 1971 1981 1994 2009 2015
1896 -0.0113 mi3
(-0.0473 km3)
-0.0200 mi3
(-0.0833 km3)
-0.0737 mi3
(-0.3071 km3)
-0.0194 mi3
(-0.0808 km3)
-0.0167 mi3
(-0.0698 km3)
-0.0184 mi3
(-0.0767 km3)
1913 -- -0.0086 mi3
(-0.0360 km3)
-0.0623 mi3
(-0.2599 km3)
-0.0080 mi3
(-0.0335 km3)
-0.0054 mi3
(-0.0225 km3)
-0.0070 mi3
(-0.0294 km3)
1971 -- -0.0537 mi3
(-0.2238 km3)
0.0006 mi3
(0.0025 km3)
0.0032 mi3
(0.0135 km3)
0.0016 mi3
(0.0067 km3)
1981 -- 0.0543 mi3
(0.2264 km3)
0.0569 mi3
(0.2373 km3)
0.0553 mi3
(0.2305 km3)
1994 -- 0.0026 mi3
(0.0110 km3)
0.0010 mi3
(0.0041 km3)
2009 -- -0.0016 mi3
(-0.0068 km3)

Percent change between periods
1913 1971 1981 1994 2009 2015
1896 -14.9 % -26.3 % -97.1 % -25.5 % -22.1 % -24.2 %
1913 -- -13.4 % -96.5 % -12.4 % -8.4 % -10.9 %
1971 -- -96.0 % 1.1 % 5.8 % 2.9 %
1981 -- 2,436.6 % 2,554.7 % 2,481.1 %
1994 -- 4.7 % 1.8 %
2009 -- -2.8 %

With the exception of data in 1981, all values here are calculated estimates based on work by Driedger and Kennard (1986), which calculates glacier volumes with the following equations:

If Glacier Length (L) > 8,500 ft:


If Glacier Length (L) < 8,500 ft:


Basal shear stress (τ) is calculated as:


Where V is the calculated volume of the glacier (ft3), A is the calculated area of the glacier (ft2), ρ is the density of ice (1.779 slug/ft3), g is the acceleration of gravity (32.178 ft/s2), and α is the average slope of the glacier.

If you need a really good research project, recalculating the glacier volumes at Mount Rainier is the way to go!

NOTES:
This glacier flows into the Carbon, North Mowich, Edmunds, and South Mowich Glaciers

Data References: Beason, 2017, George and Beason, 2017, Reese, 2009, and Driedger and Kennard, 1986