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Glacier Info - Puyallup Glacier

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Puyallup Glacier
Puyallup is the name of an Indian tribe that dwelt on the Puyallup River and Commencement Bay. The word is said to mean "...shadow from the dense shade of the forest..." (Reese, 2009)

STATISTICS AS OF 2015 (Beason, 2017):

Aerial Extent:
1.26 ± 0.06 square miles (3.26 ± 0.16 km2) (Rank: 9 of 29)

Debris Cover:
0.18 ± 0.01 square miles (0.47 ± 0.03 km2) (Rank: 5 of 29)

Highest Elevation (Head):
10,244 feet (3,122 m)

Lowest Elevation (Terminus):
5,534 feet (1,687 m)

Elevation Range:
4,709 feet (1,435 m)

Length:
2.66 miles (4.29 km)

Average Slope:
21°

Average Flow Direction (Flows towards):
West (279°)

CHANGE IN EXTENT, 1896-2015 (Beason, 2017):
Units 1896 1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
Area, mi2 3.27 2.01 1.67 1.68 1.36 1.26
Area, km2 8.46 5.21 4.32 4.35 3.52 3.26

Area change between periods
1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
1896 -1.26 mi2
(-3.25 km2)
-1.60 mi2
(-4.15 km2)
-1.59 mi2
(-4.12 km2)
-1.91 mi2
(-4.94 km2)
-2.01 mi2
(-5.21 km2)
1913 -- -0.35 mi2
(-0.90 km2)
-0.33 mi2
(-0.86 km2)
-0.65 mi2
(-1.69 km2)
-0.75 mi2
(-1.95 km2)
1971 -- 0.01 mi2
(0.03 km2)
-0.31 mi2
(-0.80 km2)
-0.41 mi2
(-1.06 km2)
1994 -- -0.32 mi2
(-0.83 km2)
-0.42 mi2
(-1.09 km2)
2009 -- -0.10 mi2
(-0.26 km2)

Percent change between periods
1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
1896 -38.4 % -49.0 % -48.6 % -58.4 % -61.5 %
1913 -- -17.2 % -16.6 % -32.5 % -37.5 %
1971 -- 0.7 % -18.5 % -24.5 %
1994 -- -19.1 % -25.1 %
2009 -- -7.4 %

ESTIMATED CHANGE IN VOLUME, 1896-2015 (George and Beason, 2017):
PLEASE see important notes about this, below...
Units 1896 1913 1971 1981* 1994 2009 2015
Volume, mi3 0.2547 0.1569 0.1299 0.2273 0.1309 0.1059 0.0980
Volume, km3 1.0617 0.6539 0.5414 0.9476 0.5454 0.4414 0.4087
* = 1981 was the only year that glacial volumes have been measured. See note below.

Basal Shear Stress (τ): 2,423.01 lbs/ft2

Volume change between periods
1913 1971 1981 1994 2009 2015
1896 -0.0978 mi3
(-0.4078 km3)
-0.1248 mi3
(-0.5203 km3)
-0.0274 mi3
(-0.1141 km3)
-0.1239 mi3
(-0.5162 km3)
-0.1488 mi3
(-0.6203 km3)
-0.1567 mi3
(-0.6530 km3)
1913 -- -0.0270 mi3
(-0.1125 km3)
0.0705 mi3
(0.2937 km3)
-0.0260 mi3
(-0.1084 km3)
-0.0510 mi3
(-0.2125 km3)
-0.0588 mi3
(-0.2452 km3)
1971 -- 0.0974 mi3
(0.4062 km3)
0.0010 mi3
(0.0040 km3)
-0.0240 mi3
(-0.1000 km3)
-0.0318 mi3
(-0.1327 km3)
1981 -- -0.0965 mi3
(-0.4021 km3)
-0.1214 mi3
(-0.5061 km3)
-0.1293 mi3
(-0.5389 km3)
1994 -- -0.0250 mi3
(-0.1040 km3)
-0.0328 mi3
(-0.1368 km3)
2009 -- -0.0079 mi3
(-0.0328 km3)

Percent change between periods
1913 1971 1981 1994 2009 2015
1896 -38.4 % -49.0 % -10.7 % -48.6 % -58.4 % -61.5 %
1913 -- -17.2 % 44.9 % -16.6 % -32.5 % -37.5 %
1971 -- 75.0 % 0.7 % -18.5 % -24.5 %
1981 -- -42.4 % -53.4 % -56.9 %
1994 -- -19.1 % -25.1 %
2009 -- -7.4 %

With the exception of data in 1981, all values here are calculated estimates based on work by Driedger and Kennard (1986), which calculates glacier volumes with the following equations:

If Glacier Length (L) > 8,500 ft:


If Glacier Length (L) < 8,500 ft:


Basal shear stress (τ) is calculated as:


Where V is the calculated volume of the glacier (ft3), A is the calculated area of the glacier (ft2), ρ is the density of ice (1.779 slug/ft3), g is the acceleration of gravity (32.178 ft/s2), and α is the average slope of the glacier.

If you need a really good research project, recalculating the glacier volumes at Mount Rainier is the way to go!

NOTES:


Data References: Beason, 2017, George and Beason, 2017, Reese, 2009, and Driedger and Kennard, 1986