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Glacier Info - Inter Glacier

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Inter Glacier
This small glacier between the Winthrop and Emmons Glaciers on the Mountain was named in 1896 "...from the fact that it does not head in the upper slopes, neither is it a tributary of any other glacier." It is located below Steamboat Prow. The name is sometimes recorded as Inter Glacier and is the source of the Inter Fork of the White River. (Reese, 2009)

STATISTICS AS OF 2015 (Beason, 2017):

Aerial Extent:
0.22 ± 0.01 square miles (0.57 ± 0.03 km2) (Rank: 22 of 29)

Debris Cover:
0.01 ± 0.00 square miles (0.01 ± 0.00 km2) (Rank: 12 of 29)

Highest Elevation (Head):
9,627 feet (2,934 m)

Lowest Elevation (Terminus):
7,331 feet (2,235 m)

Elevation Range:
2,296 feet (700 m)

Length:
0.92 miles (1.48 km)

Average Slope:
26°

Average Flow Direction (Flows towards):
North northeast (15°)

CHANGE IN EXTENT, 1896-2015 (Beason, 2017):
Units 1896 1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
Area, mi2 0.22 0.44 0.32 0.32 0.26 0.22
Area, km2 0.57 1.14 0.84 0.83 0.67 0.57

Area change between periods
1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
1896 0.22 mi2
(0.57 km2)
0.10 mi2
(0.27 km2)
0.10 mi2
(0.26 km2)
0.04 mi2
(0.10 km2)
0.00 mi2
(0.00 km2)
1913 -- -0.12 mi2
(-0.31 km2)
-0.12 mi2
(-0.32 km2)
-0.18 mi2
(-0.48 km2)
-0.22 mi2
(-0.57 km2)
1971 -- -0.00 mi2
(-0.01 km2)
-0.07 mi2
(-0.17 km2)
-0.10 mi2
(-0.26 km2)
1994 -- -0.06 mi2
(-0.16 km2)
-0.10 mi2
(-0.25 km2)
2009 -- -0.04 mi2
(-0.09 km2)

Percent change between periods
1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
1896 100.5 % 46.6 % 44.8 % 16.7 % 0.7 %
1913 -- -26.9 % -27.8 % -41.8 % -49.8 %
1971 -- -1.2 % -20.4 % -31.3 %
1994 -- -19.4 % -30.5 %
2009 -- -13.7 %

ESTIMATED CHANGE IN VOLUME, 1896-2015 (George and Beason, 2017):
PLEASE see important notes about this, below...
Units 1896 1913 1971 1981* 1994 2009 2015
Volume, mi3 0.0091 0.0200 0.0140 0.0134 0.0139 0.0109 0.0092
Volume, km3 0.0381 0.0833 0.0586 0.0557 0.0578 0.0453 0.0384
* = 1981 was the only year that glacial volumes have been measured. See note below.

Basal Shear Stress (τ): 2,393.03 lbs/ft2

Volume change between periods
1913 1971 1981 1994 2009 2015
1896 0.0108 mi3
(0.0452 km3)
0.0049 mi3
(0.0205 km3)
0.0042 mi3
(0.0176 km3)
0.0047 mi3
(0.0197 km3)
0.0017 mi3
(0.0072 km3)
0.0001 mi3
(0.0003 km3)
1913 -- -0.0059 mi3
(-0.0247 km3)
-0.0066 mi3
(-0.0275 km3)
-0.0061 mi3
(-0.0255 km3)
-0.0091 mi3
(-0.0380 km3)
-0.0108 mi3
(-0.0449 km3)
1971 -- -0.0007 mi3
(-0.0028 km3)
-0.0002 mi3
(-0.0008 km3)
-0.0032 mi3
(-0.0133 km3)
-0.0048 mi3
(-0.0202 km3)
1981 -- 0.0005 mi3
(0.0020 km3)
-0.0025 mi3
(-0.0104 km3)
-0.0042 mi3
(-0.0174 km3)
1994 -- -0.0030 mi3
(-0.0124 km3)
-0.0046 mi3
(-0.0194 km3)
2009 -- -0.0017 mi3
(-0.0069 km3)

Percent change between periods
1913 1971 1981 1994 2009 2015
1896 118.6 % 53.7 % 46.3 % 51.6 % 18.9 % 0.8 %
1913 -- -29.7 % -33.1 % -30.6 % -45.6 % -53.9 %
1971 -- -4.8 % -1.4 % -22.6 % -34.5 %
1981 -- 3.6 % -18.7 % -31.1 %
1994 -- -21.6 % -33.5 %
2009 -- -15.3 %

With the exception of data in 1981, all values here are calculated estimates based on work by Driedger and Kennard (1986), which calculates glacier volumes with the following equations:

If Glacier Length (L) > 8,500 ft:


If Glacier Length (L) < 8,500 ft:


Basal shear stress (τ) is calculated as:


Where V is the calculated volume of the glacier (ft3), A is the calculated area of the glacier (ft2), ρ is the density of ice (1.779 slug/ft3), g is the acceleration of gravity (32.178 ft/s2), and α is the average slope of the glacier.

If you need a really good research project, recalculating the glacier volumes at Mount Rainier is the way to go!

NOTES:


Data References: Beason, 2017, George and Beason, 2017, Reese, 2009, and Driedger and Kennard, 1986