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Glacier Info - Ohanapecosh Glacier

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Ohanapecosh Glacier
This glacier on the lower part of the east side of Mount Rainier is south of Fryingpan Glacier. On its western end is Whitman Crest separating it from Whitman Glacier. The 1893 Fred G. Plummer map of the mountain calls the glacier Serviss for Professor Garrett P. Serviss, one of the leading science fiction writers and lecturers of the period. (Reese, 2009)

STATISTICS AS OF 2015 (Beason, 2017):

Aerial Extent:
0.26 ± 0.01 square miles (0.67 ± 0.03 km2) (Rank: 20 of 29)

Debris Cover:
--No appreciable debris cover in 2015--

Highest Elevation (Head):
8,526 feet (2,599 m)

Lowest Elevation (Terminus):
7,075 feet (2,156 m)

Elevation Range:
1,451 feet (442 m)

Length:
0.54 miles (0.86 km)

Average Slope:
22°

Average Flow Direction (Flows towards):
East northeast (73°)

CHANGE IN EXTENT, 1896-2015 (Beason, 2017):
Units 1896 1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
Area, mi2 -- 1.15 0.53 0.54 0.30 0.26
Area, km2 -- 2.97 1.37 1.39 0.79 0.67

Area change between periods
1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
1896 1.15 mi2
(2.97 km2)
0.53 mi2
(1.37 km2)
0.54 mi2
(1.39 km2)
0.30 mi2
(0.79 km2)
0.26 mi2
(0.67 km2)
1913 -- -0.62 mi2
(-1.60 km2)
-0.61 mi2
(-1.58 km2)
-0.84 mi2
(-2.18 km2)
-0.89 mi2
(-2.30 km2)
1971 -- 0.01 mi2
(0.02 km2)
-0.23 mi2
(-0.58 km2)
-0.27 mi2
(-0.70 km2)
1994 -- -0.23 mi2
(-0.60 km2)
-0.28 mi2
(-0.72 km2)
2009 -- -0.05 mi2
(-0.12 km2)

Percent change between periods
1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
1896 -296,571.1 % -136,909.4 % -138,839.2 % -78,581.8 % -66,930.6 %
1913 -- -53.9 % -53.2 % -73.5 % -77.5 %
1971 -- 1.4 % -42.6 % -51.2 %
1994 -- -43.4 % -51.8 %
2009 -- -14.8 %

ESTIMATED CHANGE IN VOLUME, 1896-2015 (George and Beason, 2017):
PLEASE see important notes about this, below...
Units 1896 1913 1971 1981* 1994 2009 2015
Volume, mi3 -- 0.0584 0.0245 0.0290 0.0249 0.0131 0.0109
Volume, km3 -- 0.2433 0.1020 0.1208 0.1036 0.0546 0.0456
* = 1981 was the only year that glacial volumes have been measured. See note below.

Basal Shear Stress (τ): 2,423.94 lbs/ft2

Volume change between periods
1913 1971 1981 1994 2009 2015
1896 0.0584 mi3
(0.2433 km3)
0.0245 mi3
(0.1020 km3)
0.0290 mi3
(0.1208 km3)
0.0249 mi3
(0.1036 km3)
0.0131 mi3
(0.0546 km3)
0.0109 mi3
(0.0456 km3)
1913 -- -0.0339 mi3
(-0.1413 km3)
-0.0294 mi3
(-0.1225 km3)
-0.0335 mi3
(-0.1397 km3)
-0.0453 mi3
(-0.1887 km3)
-0.0474 mi3
(-0.1977 km3)
1971 -- 0.0045 mi3
(0.0188 km3)
0.0004 mi3
(0.0016 km3)
-0.0114 mi3
(-0.0474 km3)
-0.0135 mi3
(-0.0564 km3)
1981 -- -0.0041 mi3
(-0.0172 km3)
-0.0159 mi3
(-0.0662 km3)
-0.0180 mi3
(-0.0752 km3)
1994 -- -0.0118 mi3
(-0.0490 km3)
-0.0139 mi3
(-0.0580 km3)
2009 -- -0.0022 mi3
(-0.0090 km3)

Percent change between periods
1913 1971 1981 1994 2009 2015
1896 -24,328,804.3 % -10,200,216.7 % -12,077,100.0 % -10,362,079.8 % -5,461,839.9 % -4,559,242.2 %
1913 -- -58.1 % -50.4 % -57.4 % -77.6 % -81.3 %
1971 -- 18.4 % 1.6 % -46.5 % -55.3 %
1981 -- -14.2 % -54.8 % -62.2 %
1994 -- -47.3 % -56.0 %
2009 -- -16.5 %

With the exception of data in 1981, all values here are calculated estimates based on work by Driedger and Kennard (1986), which calculates glacier volumes with the following equations:

If Glacier Length (L) > 8,500 ft:


If Glacier Length (L) < 8,500 ft:


Basal shear stress (τ) is calculated as:


Where V is the calculated volume of the glacier (ft3), A is the calculated area of the glacier (ft2), ρ is the density of ice (1.779 slug/ft3), g is the acceleration of gravity (32.178 ft/s2), and α is the average slope of the glacier.

If you need a really good research project, recalculating the glacier volumes at Mount Rainier is the way to go!

NOTES:
Area was not measured for this glacier in 1896

Data References: Beason, 2017, George and Beason, 2017, Reese, 2009, and Driedger and Kennard, 1986