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Glacier Info - Russell Glacier

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Russell Glacier
Russell Glacier is located on the northwest side of the mountain west and north of Russell Cliff separated from that feature by Willis Wall, Liberty Ridge and the upper regions of the Carbon Glacier. It is connected to the Carbon Glacier above Seattle Park. It was named by the Mountaineers in 1909 to honor Professor I.C. Russell. Israel Cook Russell was a professor of geology at the University of Michigan in 1892 and conducted numerous surveys in the American west, in New Zealand, and the West Indies. He died in 1906. (Reese, 2009)

STATISTICS AS OF 2015 (Beason, 2017):

Aerial Extent:
1.12 ± 0.06 square miles (2.89 ± 0.14 km2) (Rank: 12 of 29)

Debris Cover:
0.01 ± 0.00 square miles (0.02 ± 0.00 km2) (Rank: 7 of 29)

Highest Elevation (Head):
9,772 feet (2,978 m)

Lowest Elevation (Terminus):
6,704 feet (2,043 m)

Elevation Range:
3,068 feet (935 m)

Length:
1.74 miles (2.80 km)

Average Slope:
23°

Average Flow Direction (Flows towards):
North northeast (18°)

CHANGE IN EXTENT, 1896-2015 (Beason, 2017):
Units 1896 1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
Area, mi2 2.55 1.90 1.38 1.40 1.08 1.12
Area, km2 6.61 4.91 3.57 3.64 2.79 2.89

Area change between periods
1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
1896 -0.66 mi2
(-1.70 km2)
-1.17 mi2
(-3.03 km2)
-1.15 mi2
(-2.97 km2)
-1.47 mi2
(-3.82 km2)
-1.43 mi2
(-3.71 km2)
1913 -- -0.52 mi2
(-1.33 km2)
-0.49 mi2
(-1.27 km2)
-0.82 mi2
(-2.12 km2)
-0.78 mi2
(-2.02 km2)
1971 -- 0.02 mi2
(0.06 km2)
-0.30 mi2
(-0.78 km2)
-0.26 mi2
(-0.68 km2)
1994 -- -0.33 mi2
(-0.85 km2)
-0.29 mi2
(-0.74 km2)
2009 -- 0.04 mi2
(0.10 km2)

Percent change between periods
1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
1896 -25.7 % -45.9 % -44.9 % -57.8 % -56.2 %
1913 -- -27.2 % -25.9 % -43.2 % -41.1 %
1971 -- 1.8 % -22.0 % -19.1 %
1994 -- -23.3 % -20.5 %
2009 -- 3.7 %

ESTIMATED CHANGE IN VOLUME, 1896-2015 (George and Beason, 2017):
PLEASE see important notes about this, below...
Units 1896 1913 1971 1981* 1994 2009 2015
Volume, mi3 0.2171 0.1614 0.1175 0.0691 0.1196 0.0917 0.0951
Volume, km3 0.9050 0.6726 0.4897 0.2880 0.4983 0.3822 0.3963
* = 1981 was the only year that glacial volumes have been measured. See note below.

Basal Shear Stress (τ): 2,834.30 lbs/ft2

Volume change between periods
1913 1971 1981 1994 2009 2015
1896 -0.0558 mi3
(-0.2324 km3)
-0.0996 mi3
(-0.4153 km3)
-0.1480 mi3
(-0.6170 km3)
-0.0976 mi3
(-0.4067 km3)
-0.1254 mi3
(-0.5228 km3)
-0.1220 mi3
(-0.5087 km3)
1913 -- -0.0439 mi3
(-0.1829 km3)
-0.0923 mi3
(-0.3846 km3)
-0.0418 mi3
(-0.1742 km3)
-0.0697 mi3
(-0.2904 km3)
-0.0663 mi3
(-0.2763 km3)
1971 -- -0.0484 mi3
(-0.2017 km3)
0.0021 mi3
(0.0086 km3)
-0.0258 mi3
(-0.1075 km3)
-0.0224 mi3
(-0.0934 km3)
1981 -- 0.0505 mi3
(0.2103 km3)
0.0226 mi3
(0.0942 km3)
0.0260 mi3
(0.1083 km3)
1994 -- -0.0279 mi3
(-0.1162 km3)
-0.0245 mi3
(-0.1020 km3)
2009 -- 0.0034 mi3
(0.0141 km3)

Percent change between periods
1913 1971 1981 1994 2009 2015
1896 -25.7 % -45.9 % -68.2 % -44.9 % -57.8 % -56.2 %
1913 -- -27.2 % -57.2 % -25.9 % -43.2 % -41.1 %
1971 -- -41.2 % 1.8 % -22.0 % -19.1 %
1981 -- 73.0 % 32.7 % 37.6 %
1994 -- -23.3 % -20.5 %
2009 -- 3.7 %

With the exception of data in 1981, all values here are calculated estimates based on work by Driedger and Kennard (1986), which calculates glacier volumes with the following equations:

If Glacier Length (L) > 8,500 ft:


If Glacier Length (L) < 8,500 ft:


Basal shear stress (τ) is calculated as:


Where V is the calculated volume of the glacier (ft3), A is the calculated area of the glacier (ft2), ρ is the density of ice (1.779 slug/ft3), g is the acceleration of gravity (32.178 ft/s2), and α is the average slope of the glacier.

If you need a really good research project, recalculating the glacier volumes at Mount Rainier is the way to go!

NOTES:


Data References: Beason, 2017, George and Beason, 2017, Reese, 2009, and Driedger and Kennard, 1986