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Glacier Info - Columbia Crest Glacier

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Columbia Crest Glacier
Columbia Crest is the name of the summit of Mount Rainier - The Columbia Crest Glacier occupies the summit crater. This name was suggested by H.E. Holmes of the E.S. Ingraham climbing party of 1891. The party spent two nights on the summit and before leaving jointly chose the name for it was believed at the time that it was the highest point in the United States. It was called Crater Peak by Stevens and Van Trump. A report published in the Seattle Telegraph July 28, 1894 notes that Frank W. Hawkins named it Columbia Crest while he was a member of Ingraham's July 18, 1894 conquest of the peak. (Reese, 2009)

STATISTICS AS OF 2015 (Beason, 2017):

Aerial Extent:
0.07 ± 0.00 square miles (0.18 ± 0.01 km2) (Rank: 27 of 29)

Debris Cover:
--No appreciable debris cover in 2015--

Highest Elevation (Head):
14,411 feet (4,393 m)

Lowest Elevation (Terminus):
14,145 feet (4,311 m)

Elevation Range:
267 feet (81 m)

Length:
0.43 miles (0.68 km)

Average Slope:
11°

Average Flow Direction (Flows towards):
East southeast (112°)

CHANGE IN EXTENT, 1896-2015 (Beason, 2017):
Units 1896 1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
Area, mi2 0.12 0.04 0.10 0.08 0.05 0.07
Area, km2 0.32 0.11 0.25 0.20 0.12 0.18

Area change between periods
1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
1896 -0.08 mi2
(-0.21 km2)
-0.03 mi2
(-0.07 km2)
-0.05 mi2
(-0.12 km2)
-0.08 mi2
(-0.20 km2)
-0.05 mi2
(-0.14 km2)
1913 -- 0.06 mi2
(0.14 km2)
0.04 mi2
(0.09 km2)
0.00 mi2
(0.01 km2)
0.03 mi2
(0.07 km2)
1971 -- -0.02 mi2
(-0.05 km2)
-0.05 mi2
(-0.13 km2)
-0.03 mi2
(-0.07 km2)
1994 -- -0.03 mi2
(-0.08 km2)
-0.01 mi2
(-0.02 km2)
2009 -- 0.02 mi2
(0.06 km2)

Percent change between periods
1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
1896 -66.8 % -22.1 % -38.6 % -63.4 % -43.9 %
1913 -- 134.6 % 84.9 % 10.4 % 68.8 %
1971 -- -21.2 % -53.0 % -28.0 %
1994 -- -40.3 % -8.7 %
2009 -- 53.0 %

ESTIMATED CHANGE IN VOLUME, 1896-2015 (George and Beason, 2017):
PLEASE see important notes about this, below...
Units 1896 1913 1971 1981* 1994 2009 2015
Volume, mi3 0.0048 0.0014 0.0036 -- 0.0028 0.0016 0.0025
Volume, km3 0.0200 0.0058 0.0151 -- 0.0116 0.0065 0.0104
* = 1981 was the only year that glacial volumes have been measured. See note below.

Basal Shear Stress (τ): 2,098.41 lbs/ft2

Volume change between periods
1913 1971 1981 1994 2009 2015
1896 -0.0034 mi3
(-0.0142 km3)
-0.0012 mi3
(-0.0049 km3)
-0.0048 mi3
(-0.0200 km3)
-0.0020 mi3
(-0.0085 km3)
-0.0032 mi3
(-0.0135 km3)
-0.0023 mi3
(-0.0096 km3)
1913 -- 0.0022 mi3
(0.0093 km3)
-0.0014 mi3
(-0.0058 km3)
0.0014 mi3
(0.0058 km3)
0.0002 mi3
(0.0007 km3)
0.0011 mi3
(0.0046 km3)
1971 -- -0.0036 mi3
(-0.0151 km3)
-0.0009 mi3
(-0.0035 km3)
-0.0021 mi3
(-0.0086 km3)
-0.0011 mi3
(-0.0047 km3)
1981 -- 0.0028 mi3
(0.0116 km3)
0.0016 mi3
(0.0065 km3)
0.0025 mi3
(0.0104 km3)
1994 -- -0.0012 mi3
(-0.0051 km3)
-0.0003 mi3
(-0.0011 km3)
2009 -- 0.0010 mi3
(0.0040 km3)

Percent change between periods
1913 1971 1981 1994 2009 2015
1896 -71.0 % -24.5 % -100.0 % -42.2 % -67.6 % -47.8 %
1913 -- 160.8 % -100.0 % 99.5 % 11.7 % 80.1 %
1971 -- -100.0 % -23.5 % -57.2 % -30.9 %
1981 -- -1,157,316.7 % -648,000.3 % -1,044,786.2 %
1994 -- -44.0 % -9.7 %
2009 -- 61.2 %

With the exception of data in 1981, all values here are calculated estimates based on work by Driedger and Kennard (1986), which calculates glacier volumes with the following equations:

If Glacier Length (L) > 8,500 ft:


If Glacier Length (L) < 8,500 ft:


Basal shear stress (τ) is calculated as:


Where V is the calculated volume of the glacier (ft3), A is the calculated area of the glacier (ft2), ρ is the density of ice (1.779 slug/ft3), g is the acceleration of gravity (32.178 ft/s2), and α is the average slope of the glacier.

If you need a really good research project, recalculating the glacier volumes at Mount Rainier is the way to go!

NOTES:
No outlet for this glacier, though it does exhibit downward and radial motion

Data References: Beason, 2017, George and Beason, 2017, Reese, 2009, and Driedger and Kennard, 1986