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Glacier Info - Stevens Glacier

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Stevens Glacier
Hazard Stevens, son of Isaac I. Stevens, was born at Newport, Rhode Island, June 9,1842. He accompanied his father in the treaty making expeditions of 1854 and 1855 and served on the General's staff and was wounded in the Battle of Chantilly when his father was killed. On August 17,1870, with P. B. Van Trump he made the first successful ascent of Mount Rainier. The Stevens Glacier which is below the Paradise Glacier on the south side of Mount Rainier has nearly disappeared. (Reese, 2009)

STATISTICS AS OF 2015 (Beason, 2017):

Aerial Extent:
0.01 ± 0.00 square miles (0.03 ± 0.00 km2) (Rank: 29 of 29)

Debris Cover:
--No appreciable debris cover in 2015--

Highest Elevation (Head):
6,840 feet (2,085 m)

Lowest Elevation (Terminus):
6,527 feet (1,989 m)

Elevation Range:
313 feet (95 m)

Length:
0.36 miles (0.57 km)

Average Slope:
20°

Average Flow Direction (Flows towards):
East southeast (113°)

CHANGE IN EXTENT, 1896-2015 (Beason, 2017):
Units 1896 1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
Area, mi2 -- -- -- -- 0.04 0.01
Area, km2 -- -- -- -- 0.10 0.03

Area change between periods
1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
1896 0.00 mi2
(0.00 km2)
0.00 mi2
(0.00 km2)
0.00 mi2
(0.00 km2)
0.04 mi2
(0.10 km2)
0.01 mi2
(0.03 km2)
1913 -- 0.00 mi2
(0.00 km2)
0.00 mi2
(0.00 km2)
0.04 mi2
(0.10 km2)
0.01 mi2
(0.03 km2)
1971 -- 0.00 mi2
(0.00 km2)
0.04 mi2
(0.10 km2)
0.01 mi2
(0.03 km2)
1994 -- 0.04 mi2
(0.10 km2)
0.01 mi2
(0.03 km2)
2009 -- -0.03 mi2
(-0.07 km2)

Percent change between periods
1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
1896 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % -10,181.9 % -3,404.0 %
1913 -- 0.0 % 0.0 % -10,181.9 % -3,404.0 %
1971 -- 0.0 % -10,181.9 % -3,404.0 %
1994 -- -10,181.9 % -3,404.0 %
2009 -- -67.2 %

ESTIMATED CHANGE IN VOLUME, 1896-2015 (George and Beason, 2017):
PLEASE see important notes about this, below...
Units 1896 1913 1971 1981* 1994 2009 2015
Volume, mi3 -- -- -- -- -- 0.0013 0.0004
Volume, km3 -- -- -- -- -- 0.0055 0.0016
* = 1981 was the only year that glacial volumes have been measured. See note below.

Basal Shear Stress (τ): 1,763.40 lbs/ft2

Volume change between periods
1913 1971 1981 1994 2009 2015
1896 0.0000 mi3
(0.0000 km3)
0.0000 mi3
(0.0000 km3)
0.0000 mi3
(0.0000 km3)
0.0000 mi3
(0.0000 km3)
0.0013 mi3
(0.0055 km3)
0.0004 mi3
(0.0016 km3)
1913 -- 0.0000 mi3
(0.0000 km3)
0.0000 mi3
(0.0000 km3)
0.0000 mi3
(0.0000 km3)
0.0013 mi3
(0.0055 km3)
0.0004 mi3
(0.0016 km3)
1971 -- 0.0000 mi3
(0.0000 km3)
0.0000 mi3
(0.0000 km3)
0.0013 mi3
(0.0055 km3)
0.0004 mi3
(0.0016 km3)
1981 -- 0.0000 mi3
(0.0000 km3)
0.0013 mi3
(0.0055 km3)
0.0004 mi3
(0.0016 km3)
1994 -- 0.0013 mi3
(0.0055 km3)
0.0004 mi3
(0.0016 km3)
2009 -- -0.0009 mi3
(-0.0039 km3)

Percent change between periods
1913 1971 1981 1994 2009 2015
1896 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % -545,316.1 % -155,693.4 %
1913 -- 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % -545,316.1 % -155,693.4 %
1971 -- 0.0 % 0.0 % -545,316.1 % -155,693.4 %
1981 -- 0.0 % -545,316.1 % -155,693.4 %
1994 -- -545,316.1 % -155,693.4 %
2009 -- -71.5 %

With the exception of data in 1981, all values here are calculated estimates based on work by Driedger and Kennard (1986), which calculates glacier volumes with the following equations:

If Glacier Length (L) > 8,500 ft:


If Glacier Length (L) < 8,500 ft:


Basal shear stress (τ) is calculated as:


Where V is the calculated volume of the glacier (ft3), A is the calculated area of the glacier (ft2), ρ is the density of ice (1.779 slug/ft3), g is the acceleration of gravity (32.178 ft/s2), and α is the average slope of the glacier.

If you need a really good research project, recalculating the glacier volumes at Mount Rainier is the way to go!

NOTES:
Extent of this glacier from 1896-1994 was included with the combined Paradise/Stevents Glacier system. See Paradise Glacier for extent change over time.

Data References: Beason, 2017, George and Beason, 2017, Reese, 2009, and Driedger and Kennard, 1986