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Glacier Info - Edmunds Glacier

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Edmunds Glacier
Located on the eastern slope of Mount Rainier this glacier was named for United States Senator George F. Edmunds who visited there in June of 1883. So impressed with the scenery of the mountain Edmunds that he joined with a group of prominent men who wrote a joint letter urging the establishment of a national park. (Reese, 2009)

STATISTICS AS OF 2015 (Beason, 2017):

Aerial Extent:
0.48 ± 0.02 square miles (1.25 ± 0.06 km2) (Rank: 18 of 29)

Debris Cover:
0.05 ± 0.00 square miles (0.13 ± 0.01 km2) (Rank: 12 of 29)

Highest Elevation (Head):
10,130 feet (3,088 m)

Lowest Elevation (Terminus):
6,979 feet (2,127 m)

Elevation Range:
3,151 feet (960 m)

Length:
1.32 miles (2.12 km)

Average Slope:
25°

Average Flow Direction (Flows towards):
West (280°)

CHANGE IN EXTENT, 1896-2015 (Beason, 2017):
Units 1896 1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
Area, mi2 1.09 0.59 0.57 0.55 0.50 0.48
Area, km2 2.82 1.53 1.47 1.42 1.30 1.25

Area change between periods
1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
1896 -0.50 mi2
(-1.29 km2)
-0.52 mi2
(-1.35 km2)
-0.54 mi2
(-1.40 km2)
-0.59 mi2
(-1.52 km2)
-0.61 mi2
(-1.57 km2)
1913 -- -0.02 mi2
(-0.06 km2)
-0.04 mi2
(-0.11 km2)
-0.09 mi2
(-0.23 km2)
-0.11 mi2
(-0.28 km2)
1971 -- -0.02 mi2
(-0.06 km2)
-0.07 mi2
(-0.17 km2)
-0.09 mi2
(-0.22 km2)
1994 -- -0.05 mi2
(-0.12 km2)
-0.06 mi2
(-0.16 km2)
2009 -- -0.02 mi2
(-0.05 km2)

Percent change between periods
1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
1896 -45.7 % -47.7 % -49.8 % -53.9 % -55.6 %
1913 -- -3.7 % -7.4 % -15.0 % -18.1 %
1971 -- -3.9 % -11.8 % -15.0 %
1994 -- -8.2 % -11.6 %
2009 -- -3.7 %

ESTIMATED CHANGE IN VOLUME, 1896-2015 (George and Beason, 2017):
PLEASE see important notes about this, below...
Units 1896 1913 1971 1981* 1994 2009 2015
Volume, mi3 0.0551 0.0277 0.0266 0.0245 0.0254 0.0231 0.0221
Volume, km3 0.2297 0.1155 0.1108 0.1022 0.1060 0.0962 0.0923
* = 1981 was the only year that glacial volumes have been measured. See note below.

Basal Shear Stress (τ): 2,598.50 lbs/ft2

Volume change between periods
1913 1971 1981 1994 2009 2015
1896 -0.0274 mi3
(-0.1142 km3)
-0.0285 mi3
(-0.1189 km3)
-0.0306 mi3
(-0.1275 km3)
-0.0297 mi3
(-0.1237 km3)
-0.0320 mi3
(-0.1335 km3)
-0.0330 mi3
(-0.1374 km3)
1913 -- -0.0011 mi3
(-0.0048 km3)
-0.0032 mi3
(-0.0133 km3)
-0.0023 mi3
(-0.0096 km3)
-0.0046 mi3
(-0.0193 km3)
-0.0056 mi3
(-0.0233 km3)
1971 -- -0.0021 mi3
(-0.0086 km3)
-0.0011 mi3
(-0.0048 km3)
-0.0035 mi3
(-0.0146 km3)
-0.0044 mi3
(-0.0185 km3)
1981 -- 0.0009 mi3
(0.0038 km3)
-0.0014 mi3
(-0.0060 km3)
-0.0024 mi3
(-0.0099 km3)
1994 -- -0.0023 mi3
(-0.0098 km3)
-0.0033 mi3
(-0.0137 km3)
2009 -- -0.0009 mi3
(-0.0039 km3)

Percent change between periods
1913 1971 1981 1994 2009 2015
1896 -49.7 % -51.8 % -55.5 % -53.9 % -58.1 % -59.8 %
1913 -- -4.1 % -11.5 % -8.3 % -16.7 % -20.1 %
1971 -- -7.7 % -4.3 % -13.1 % -16.7 %
1981 -- 3.7 % -5.9 % -9.7 %
1994 -- -9.2 % -12.9 %
2009 -- -4.1 %

With the exception of data in 1981, all values here are calculated estimates based on work by Driedger and Kennard (1986), which calculates glacier volumes with the following equations:

If Glacier Length (L) > 8,500 ft:


If Glacier Length (L) < 8,500 ft:


Basal shear stress (τ) is calculated as:


Where V is the calculated volume of the glacier (ft3), A is the calculated area of the glacier (ft2), ρ is the density of ice (1.779 slug/ft3), g is the acceleration of gravity (32.178 ft/s2), and α is the average slope of the glacier.

If you need a really good research project, recalculating the glacier volumes at Mount Rainier is the way to go!

NOTES:


Data References: Beason, 2017, George and Beason, 2017, Reese, 2009, and Driedger and Kennard, 1986