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Glacier Info - Ingraham Glacier

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Ingraham Glacier
Ingraham Glacier, on the southeast slope of Mount Rainier, was named by Professor I.C. Russell in 1896 for Edward Sturgis Ingraham of Seattle, an early mountaineer. Ingraham arrived in Seattle in 1875 from Maine. He taught school and was Superintendent of King County Schools from 1875 to 1882 and of Seattle Schools from 1883 to 1889. He was a Colonel in the Militia, but was usually referred to as Major Ingraham. He climbed Mount Rainier eleven times often serving as a guide. He died in Seattle August 16, 1926. (Reese, 2009)

STATISTICS AS OF 2015 (Beason, 2017):

Aerial Extent:
1.16 ± 0.06 square miles (3.01 ± 0.15 km2) (Rank: 11 of 29)

Debris Cover:
0.11 ± 0.01 square miles (0.28 ± 0.02 km2) (Rank: 9 of 29)

Highest Elevation (Head):
14,080 feet (4,292 m)

Lowest Elevation (Terminus):
6,516 feet (1,986 m)

Elevation Range:
7,564 feet (2,305 m)

Length:
3.22 miles (5.18 km)

Average Slope:
32°

Average Flow Direction (Flows towards):
East southeast (123°)

CHANGE IN EXTENT, 1896-2015 (Beason, 2017):
Units 1896 1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
Area, mi2 -- -- -- -- -- 1.16
Area, km2 -- -- -- -- -- 3.01

Area change between periods
1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
1896 0.00 mi2
(0.00 km2)
0.00 mi2
(0.00 km2)
0.00 mi2
(0.00 km2)
0.00 mi2
(0.00 km2)
1.16 mi2
(3.01 km2)
1913 -- 0.00 mi2
(0.00 km2)
0.00 mi2
(0.00 km2)
0.00 mi2
(0.00 km2)
1.16 mi2
(3.01 km2)
1971 -- 0.00 mi2
(0.00 km2)
0.00 mi2
(0.00 km2)
1.16 mi2
(3.01 km2)
1994 -- 0.00 mi2
(0.00 km2)
1.16 mi2
(3.01 km2)
2009 -- 1.16 mi2
(3.01 km2)

Percent change between periods
1913 1971 1994 2009 2015
1896 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % -300,228.6 %
1913 -- 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % -300,228.6 %
1971 -- 0.0 % 0.0 % -300,228.6 %
1994 -- 0.0 % -300,228.6 %
2009 -- -300,228.6 %

ESTIMATED CHANGE IN VOLUME, 1896-2015 (George and Beason, 2017):
PLEASE see important notes about this, below...
Units 1896 1913 1971 1981* 1994 2009 2015
Volume, mi3 -- -- -- 0.1560 -- -- 0.0810
Volume, km3 -- -- -- 0.6503 -- -- 0.3376
* = 1981 was the only year that glacial volumes have been measured. See note below.

Basal Shear Stress (τ): 2,869.23 lbs/ft2

Volume change between periods
1913 1971 1981 1994 2009 2015
1896 0.0000 mi3
(0.0000 km3)
0.0000 mi3
(0.0000 km3)
0.1560 mi3
(0.6503 km3)
0.0000 mi3
(0.0000 km3)
0.0000 mi3
(0.0000 km3)
0.0810 mi3
(0.3376 km3)
1913 -- 0.0000 mi3
(0.0000 km3)
0.1560 mi3
(0.6503 km3)
0.0000 mi3
(0.0000 km3)
0.0000 mi3
(0.0000 km3)
0.0810 mi3
(0.3376 km3)
1971 -- 0.1560 mi3
(0.6503 km3)
0.0000 mi3
(0.0000 km3)
0.0000 mi3
(0.0000 km3)
0.0810 mi3
(0.3376 km3)
1981 -- -0.1560 mi3
(-0.6503 km3)
-0.1560 mi3
(-0.6503 km3)
-0.0750 mi3
(-0.3127 km3)
1994 -- 0.0000 mi3
(0.0000 km3)
0.0810 mi3
(0.3376 km3)
2009 -- 0.0810 mi3
(0.3376 km3)

Percent change between periods
1913 1971 1981 1994 2009 2015
1896 0.0 % 0.0 % -65,030,100.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % -33,755,266.3 %
1913 -- 0.0 % -65,030,100.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % -33,755,266.3 %
1971 -- -65,030,100.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % -33,755,266.3 %
1981 -- -100.0 % -100.0 % -48.1 %
1994 -- 0.0 % -33,755,266.3 %
2009 -- -33,755,266.3 %

With the exception of data in 1981, all values here are calculated estimates based on work by Driedger and Kennard (1986), which calculates glacier volumes with the following equations:

If Glacier Length (L) > 8,500 ft:


If Glacier Length (L) < 8,500 ft:


Basal shear stress (τ) is calculated as:


Where V is the calculated volume of the glacier (ft3), A is the calculated area of the glacier (ft2), ρ is the density of ice (1.779 slug/ft3), g is the acceleration of gravity (32.178 ft/s2), and α is the average slope of the glacier.

If you need a really good research project, recalculating the glacier volumes at Mount Rainier is the way to go!

NOTES:
This glacier flows into the Cowlitz Glacier. Extent of this glacier from 1896-2009 was included with the combined Cowlitz/Ingraham Glacier system. See Cowlitz Glacier for extent change over time.

Data References: Beason, 2017, George and Beason, 2017, Reese, 2009, and Driedger and Kennard, 1986